Coursework: Shakespeare, truth or fiction
… You’re here, you’re alive — but the name, but the appearance of his own, tricking the world, you sank you dear Summer. And then say: labors used to sign — for a fee — the lender, the William Shakespeare that the shadow played in “hamlet’. Vladimir Nabokov, “Shakespeare”, 1924
The question of the existence of Shakespeare was still relevant a half-century ago, with the filing of the American scholar Delia bacon and I think it is relevant to this day. To Delia’s many doubted the identity of Shakespeare. What a host of myths and hypotheses. But whether this man was really the person that we accept it?
Shakespeare who are you? The plot of any detective pales next to the mystery of its existence. And she became, requires clues, because the literature just doesn’t know another poet with such extraordinary beauty and imagery of the language, a tremendous vocabulary, academic knowledge and philosophical understanding of life…
Unfortunately, I could find only three versions of the scientists and researchers. But perhaps they are the most popular.
The Stratford version
Shakespeare is known to all — even those who know nothing. Of course, the degree of knowledge of Shakespeare at all different from the name of hearing to go deep in his literary heritage. This mysterious author left us with 36 pieces and a cycle of sonnets, we know from school his Romeo and Juliet, king Lear and his daughters, spouses of Macbeth is jealous of Othello and others — a number everyone can continue as his erudition. Speaking in a lofty style, Shakespeare — a mighty oak, standing alone on the edge of the forest of world culture, and not in literature a more symbolic figure. But the paradox is that today, alas, no one can say with confidence: “I know who Shakespeare is”.
In Shakespeare studies there is no single hypothesis about the life of the great poet. The palm in this case held, of course, English-speaking countries. However, since the late 90s and still “trump card” in the deck known versions remains the sensational book by the Russian researcher Ilya Gililova “Game about William Shakespeare, or the Mystery of the Great Phoenix”. Gililova set out the facts, many of which — the opening of the scientist, built with conviction and logic that is difficult to refute. For over ten years, supporters and opponents of this version upon each weighty arguments.
What do we know about William Shakespeare?
Information about his life and work is inversely proportional to its cultural significance. They were almost there. In encyclopedias it is written that the great playwright and poet William Shakespeare was born April 23, 1564. And 52 years later in 1616-m, — exactly on the same day, 23 April, died.
His parents could neither read nor write, Shaksper John (father) left a few autographs-crosses. Did not have any information about what kind of education did William. It is not known even whether he went to school. I suspect that to learn he began, but was forced to leave school due to difficult financial situation of the family. At the same time, it is reported that his father was a wool merchant and highly respected citizen in 1570, and in 1576 he even showed concern about getting a family crest (this is an ambitious wish was granted only in 1596, through the efforts of William Shakespeare). In 18 years Shaksper William married Anne Hathaway who was 8 years older. The wedding was forced, because Anne was in the fourth month. The couple in 1583 daughter Susanna, and in 1585-m — twins will Hamnet and Judith. Since that time the so-called “dark” period in my life Shakspere. There are hundreds, thousands of written testimonies of those times — documents, manuscripts, autographs. But no line written by the hand of William Shakespeare, although even then, for his works were hunted by publishers. The history of the famous six signatures of famous Stratford resident: three of them under the will, two under the deed and mortgage on the house and one on claim evidence in court. However, signatures is difficult to call them. Rather, scrawl, written with shaky hand, obviously not accustomed to Peru. And in five cases out of six he’s written his name as “William Shaksper”. Also in the Church books recorded the name of his father. However, in English “Shaksper” (Shakspere), and “Shakespeare” (Shakespeare) written fundamentally differently. Besides Shakespeare name meaning and translates as “terrific spear.” It came after William with the help of some noble patrons got a family coat of arms, which depicts a horseman with uplifted spear in hand…
The most important period of the poet’s life — time, when he came from Stratford to London and appeared in theatre, very little is known. But, no, some, traces of Shakespeare in those years still remained. The first London appearance of Shakespeare is not very convincing. In 1592 the playwright Robert Greene (Robert Greene) in his suicide autobiography wrote about a Shake-scene (the Shaker of the scene), calling him a “sheep-man, decorated with our feathers” who believes that she is able to white verse as the best of poets. But modern scholars doubt that green was talking about the actor Shakespeare.
And only in June 1593, published the poem by William Shakespeare Venus and Adonis , with a dedication to the young Earl of Southampton. In 1594 the name William Shakespeare is mentioned amongst the names of the actors of the troupe the Lord Chamberlain, who gave performances before Her Majesty Elizabeth I. in 1597 he buys the second largest house in Stratford, where still his family lived. The report 1598-th traditional annual inspection of stocks of grain and malt recorded that Shakespeare owns 80 bushels of malt. In 1599, he becomes a partner in the London theater “globe” — having there share of 10 percent. In the 1604-attracted to the court of his neighbor the blacksmith for the delay of the debt. And in 1605-m redeems the right to levy taxes on the straw and hay, And in these same years, mind you! — Shakespeare written his great plays: “Romeo and Juliet”, “hamlet”, “King Lear”, “Othello”…
This is what happens: putting “hamlet”, the author goes to sue Smith, by writing of “Othello” — to sell hay?
What a monstrous split personality! Here is the opinion of the English politician and writer John bright:
“Anyone who believes that this man is William Shakespeare from Stratford could have written “hamlet” and “Lear,” the fool!”
Testament of Shakespeare, written with his words by the notary of the city, is another blow to the Stratford myth. The pound and the shilling he paints their belongings unborn heirs to the seventh generation. Petty lists all of their “property” from houses and buildings to the Cup and “second-best bed,” which generously leaves his wife. While never in the will no mention of books, which he, in theory, was supposed to be a lot. No mention of manuscripts and diaries. And the death of Shakespeare, the greatest poet of his time, remained unnoticed by anyone in the whole of England, quite incredibly. After all, it was decided together to mourn these people, releasing special collections.
It is unclear also, why Shakespeare returned in 1612-m from London in Stratford, wrote more than a single line, although he lived for another few years?
The facts response to facts. Shakespeare’s works are distinguished by unsurpassed artistic skill and philosophical insight into the major problems of existence. They show not only the genius but also an encyclopedic amount of knowledge that was available to very few of his contemporaries. Dictionary of Shakespeare has more than 20 thousand words, that is two to three times more than the most gifted writers and philosophers of the XVI— XVII centuries, and later too. From Francis bacon, for example, 8 thousand words, William Thackeray -5 thousand, Victor Hugo -9. Shakespeare introduced into the English language, according to Oxford dictionary, 3200 new words. His works show that he knew French, Latin, Italian, Greek, and possibly other languages. He was familiar with Greco-Roman mythology, the works of Homer, Ovid, Seneca, Montaigne, Rabelais, and many others. Versed in the Bible, followed by travel literature and geographical discoveries.
Special studies conducted over the past half century, showed the thoroughness of knowledge of Shakespeare in English history, law, rhetoric, music, botany, medicine, military and even naval matters. In those days the vast majority of such knowledge could be obtained only at the University. In addition, says a lot about a very close acquaintance of Shakespeare with court etiquette, the language of the highborn nobility… How did all of this depth is consistent with the ‘second-best bed”?!
The authorship of Shakespeare stratfords doubt mark TWAIN, Charlie Chaplin, Walt Whitman, Henry James, John Galsworthy, Sigmund Freud, Charles Dickens and other eminent personalities. The search for the “real” author got a special tension in the nineteenth century. Here are some of the most well-known candidates: philosopher Francis bacon; Edward de Vere, 17th Earl of Oxford; Christopher Marlowe, poet and spy, who died in 1593; William Stanley, Earl of Derby; George brown, Lord Hunsdon; Roger manners, Earl of Rutland; Mary Sidney, Countess of Pembroke; James Stuart, king of Scotland, then of England; Robert Cecil, Secretary of state Elizabeth… This number includes 57 persons — but the struggle for supremacy still goes on with varying success, where permanent winners only “stratfordians” — the adherents of the authorship of William of Stratford.
By the way, very interesting to know that the name “Shakespeare” first appeared in print in 1593. The actor and moneylender Shaksper died in 1616, after he visited the poet Ben Johnson, and together they drank the wine. The arithmetic is simple: 1616 — 1593 = 23. Then it turns out that the result of a mysterious contract the life of the unfortunate Shakspere was determined long before his death, and his name was borrowed from him for someone who could not publish under his own.
Of course, this assumption raises a smile. But here one more nuance. The way of life of Shakespeare was completed in 1616. Before the release of the Folio, in 1622, in Stratforde, in the Church. Trinity at the Northern wall, directly in front of the grave of Shakespeare was erected a monument. The inscription on it reads:
Iudicio pylium genio Socratem, arte maronem,
Terra tegit, popvlvs maeret, Olympus habet
Stay Passenger, why goest thov by so fast,
Read if thov ganst(canst) enviovs whom Death hath plast
With in this monvment Shakspeare: with whome
qvick natvre dide: whose name, doth deck ys(this) Tombe,
Far more, then cost: Sieh all, yt He hath writt
Leaves living art, bvt page to serve his witt
The mind of Nestor, the spirit of Socrates, the art of Vergil
The land keeps secret, the people mourn, Olympus owns
Stop, passerby, why are you going so fast
Read, if you can, whom envious death bricked
this monument of Shakespeare, which
Quick nature disposed, whose name adorns this tomb-monument,
Much more than appreciated: See (it.) everything He wrote
Leaves living art, only pazu, the servant of his mind.
But could a man hiding behind a pseudonym, to write on the gravestone of his “mask” was an alias and neglected my real name? Unlikely. Look at the grave Shakspere in front of the monument. Noting that she was nameless, read a short poem carved on the tombstone:
Good frend for iesvs sake forbeare,
To digg the dvst encloased heare:
Bleste be ye man yt spares thes stones,
And cvrst be he yt moves my bones.
Dear friend, for Jesus ‘ sake, refrain
To dig the dust hidden here
Blessed be the man that spare these stones,
And cursed be he who disturbs my bones.
Shakespeare was a Jewish woman.
The Shakespeare-lover John Hudson thought that under the famous name of Shakespeare was a woman, a Jew of Italian descent, Amelia Bassano Lanier. She was marranci, lived in England and became known as the first woman who published a poetry collection (“Salve Deus Rex Judaeorum”, 1611).
Hudson believes that she — the Dark lady mentioned in Shakespeare’s sonnets. The researcher is so deeply convinced of his rightness that he organized a theatre troupe , “Playing Dark lady”to put pieces in the way that, from his point of view, meant to Bassano.
The fact that Bassano is the Dark lady of the sonnets, was established in 1973 by researcher A. L. rose. A later study showed that itself Bassano wrote the sonnets, speaking of himself in the third person.
His theory, Hudson was built on the results of a study of the life and work of Amelia Bassano. He established the similarity of the language of the poet and “Shakespeare’s” works found in the texts of the allegory, taken from the Jewish tradition. In “Shakespearean texts”, says the scientist, there are different names pointing to the authorship of Bassano. But the main source of information about the poetess — the text “Dark lady”, the autobiography of Amelia Bassano, 800 pages. It describes the childhood of Bassano in the house adopted her Countess Susan Bertie, cohabitation with Lord Hattonom (patron of the Royal theatre), a work of historical plays for the theater.
The book describes her friendship with an atheist and a rebel by Christopher Marlowe (1564-1593) and set out the reasons for his murder: he wanted to prevent to publish the text “Vs Trinity”, where he declared the New Testament a literary hoax. This is followed by the story of how Bassano alienated from the court, and how she was married to court musician Alfonso Lanier of. In the future, Amelia wrote a series of Italian wedding comedies, the first of which — “the taming of the shrew”. The diary describes how she turned to one William Shakespeare, so he invited her plays for the court theatre as its previous patron was no longer able to help. Then describes how Lanier has spent her fortune, her plays became darker and harder, and as she became the first in England, is the owner and Director of the school.
Apparently, Hudson is not quite a complete charlatan. He has degrees in the field of the theory of dramaturgy, sociology and anthropology, received in prestigious universities. He specializes in the cognitive theory and communication theory.
The appearance of Roger and Elizabeth of Rutland.
Shakespeare wrote a poem “the Pigeon and the Phoenix”, which is considered his most mysterious work. In Russian language its name is translated as ‘the Phoenix and the Dove” by changing the sex of birds on the opposite, according to accepted canons of mythology (simply not paying attention to the fact that in the original, according to the will of the author, Phoenix is clearly feminine). This is a poem about a Platonic marriage, an unusual couple who have devoted themselves to the service of art and the Apollo… the Poem was first printed in the collection of the poet Robert Chester, entitled “Victim of love”. Incidentally, this was the only case of voluntary participation, Shakespeare in the collective collection, but, despite this exclusivity, very long time “Victim of love”, nobody paid attention.
Poem of the Chester in the same collection also tells the story of a mysterious Dove and the Phoenix, are absorbed in the fire of death. The Dove dies first — and a Phoenix as a loyal friend (again, female), follow him voluntarily. Other works of the collection, in fact, a funeral lament, signed “a chorus of poets’, “the best and brightest” in which they mourn his noble friend and his friend related the amazing bonds… Preserved three copies of the book. Gililov has established the true date of its publication — 1612, and then found out who became the prototypes of the Dove and Phoenix. Their names is Roger manners, 5th Earl of Rutland and his wife Elizabeth Rutland, daughter of the great English poet Philip Sidney, baptized the Queen Elizabeth. They are really tied to the Platonic marriage. And they died almost at the same time. But why suddenly the best poets of England mourn their death, and secretly? Who were these people?
According to the academic Secretary of the Shakespeare Commission of the Academy of Sciences of Russia Ilya Gililova — they were the “William Shakespeare”, whose works have conquered the world!..
I must say that the name of the Earl of Rutland is not new to shekspiroved. It has long been mentioned as one of the brilliant young aristocrats, friends of the Earl of Southampton, the same who dedicated most of Shakespeare’s sonnets and his poems. The tone of these initiations testifies: the one who wrote them, and the one for whom they were written, were men of equal position in society. Of Rutland and Southampton have been. But how could worm his way into such a high-ranking circle Stratford Shaksper — for experts has always remained a mystery. After all, the son of a glove maker (note that in the first hypothesis, it was reported that Shakespeare’s father was a merchant of wool) and a generic graph divided insurmountable class divide.
Go ahead — Rutland and Southampton, who at age 16 became a master of arts, linked the love of theater. It is proved that, with their financial participation, built the globe theatre, which hosted the premieres of all of Shakespeare’s plays. Another important caveat: most published in the time of Shakespeare’s works are signed ‘William Shakespeare (“amazing spear” — when a hyphen when without; saying it was the student’s nickname of Rutland). By the way — that at the same time at the Globe on the sidelines had worked Shaksper William of Stratford. It is highly likely that Rutland was amused by the similarity of his name in literature with the name of the actor — and then it was put in a good word on the family crest for the Stratford citizen. Most likely, the count used Shakspere — Shakespeare for the transmission of the plays in the theatre, that the latter received a good reward. Last sum — a few dozen pounds in gold — he and his colleague across the stage, Richard Burbage received seven months after the death of Rutland. Summoned to the family estate of Ratelindo, Belvoir castle, the younger brother of the count, they took their fees (about what there is an entry in this Ledger Butler), and then Shakespeare Shaksper quickly eliminated all their business in London and permanently returned to Stratford, continuing as if nothing had happened to have malt and straw.
Earl of Rutland died in 1612, And after this time the genius of Shakespeare not written a single line, although he lived for another four years. Now I understand why!
Next. In the early twentieth century, the Belgian historian Demblon found in the list of students of Padua University in 1596, the names of two Danish students, ROS and GUIL. Around the world they are known as classmates of hamlet and his traitors. Having studied the same lists again Gililov found in them the name… Roger Manners, Earl of Rutland, who was there with them at one time! Amazing coincidence.
And here’s another one: in the beginning of 1603 published the first edition of Shakespeare’s “hamlet”, and exactly one year later — the second, supplemented. The first was issued by the pirates, as they say now — that is, people lacking a complete text, while the latter was released in full with the consent of Shakespeare. And with details, the author of which could be only of Rutland. In June 1603, the king James, 1 sent him to the Kingdom of Denmark, led an official mission to congratulate the local monarch with the birth of a son. Then in the second edition of the play appeared to describe the festivities with copious libations, which were attended by the count and that even in detail coincide with the historical notes, the Royal Herald William segar, who was in the delegation of Rutland. Remember the carpet with the portraits of kings that hid Polonius to overhear a conversation that Gertrude and hamlet? It turned out that such a silk curtain with the image in chronological order all Danish monarchs existed in fact, and Rutland saw it with my own eyes. And on his return to England, must be processed and added to the text of the tragedy.
The whole life of Roger Manners and his wife were shrouded in mystery. And it is quite mysteriously looked their funeral. Earl long and was seriously ill. He died in Cambridge in June 1612 at the age of 35 years. His body was embalmed and only three weeks later in the closed coffin was transported to his native place. The same night, and did not open the tomb — thereby grossly violating the funeral rites, it was buried in the family tomb. His wife at the funeral, was not present. And this mystery is also explained. In the London news of the summer of 1612 it was reported that Elizabeth of Rutland died ten days after my husband’s funeral by taking poison. That is, the death of both is very similar to the one described in the poem-Requiem “the Pigeon and the Phoenix”. Elizabeth of Rutland could secretly buried in St. Paul’s Cathedral… with the body of her husband. And the coffin of Rutland have not opened it because there were buried not only his remains.
The first Shakespeare folio (the so-called in Britain at that time complete works) was prepared by the family and friends of Retlando to a ten-year anniversary of their death. And completed it at the behest of “Great” to spend on this luxury edition is a huge amount, the poem “the Pigeon and the Phoenix” — a poem Requiem. Turns out… Shakespeare — from Shakespeare. Whom it is written, if the real Shakespeare died? Apparently, someone from the “Great Lords”. Who? Unknown. However, the Peru of the poet this work belong definitely could not. Not the level. For example, the largest biographer of Shakespeare, Sidney Lee, argued in the late nineteenth century about the mystery of this piece, added the following sentence:
“Fortunately, Shakespeare did not write anything more in the same way…” Centuries, “the Pigeon and the Phoenix” faithfully reprinted from the edition in the edition, and not solved the mystery. And still worth it to remove the poems cover — to again marvel at the vastness and sophistication of the inventions of the present Shakespeare!
In conclusion, I want to say that Edward de Vere could be Shakespeare because he died in 1604 – before was written many of his plays, including the Tempest. Actually couldn’t be Shakespeare and Edward Dyer because he, too, died too early and could not have written the later plays of Shakespeare’s Canon.
And indeed to prove to anyone except Shakespeare, the right to authorship of his plays so simply, did not reckon with the totality of the evidence at that time. The most compelling of them belongs to Ben Johnson he knew the actor Shakespeare played regularly in the plays of Johnson; he criticized the extravagance of Shakespeare’s style and noted his errors, but he also praised him as a playwright who could compete “with all that has created a stout Greece or haughty Rome.”
Was Shakespeare who we accept it or not to judge you. I, in turn, have provided many facts, myths and hypotheses.
1. Morozov M. Articles on Shakespeare. Moscow, 1964
2. Anikst A. Shakespeare. The craft of the playwright. M., 1974
3. Shenbaum, S. Shakespeare: a brief documentary biography. M., 1985
4. Halliday F. E. Shakespeare and his world. M., 1986
5. Mintz N.In. The old and always modern. Paradoxes of Shakespeare: Shakespeare in the English theater XVII–XIX centuries, Moscow, 1990
6. Shakespeare and the theatre. SPb, 1993
7. Matrosovich, A. W. Shakespeare. England. Of the twentieth century. M, 1994
8. Dr. A. RakoSHy. THE EQUATION OF SHAKESPEARE OR “HAMLET”, WHICH WE HAVE NOT READ