Criminologgy Del. Test 2

What happens to rapists in the CJ system?

-89% of those convicted will go to jail

Burglary definition

-FBI: unlawful entry of a structure to commit a felony

Rape Shield Laws

-Eliminated requirements of physical resistance

-A victim does not have to physically resist to prove the rape has occured.

-Eliminated the requirement of corroboration

-A witness is not necessary

-Limited evidence of the victim’s sexual history

Sutherland’s definition of white collar crime

-A crime committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the couse of his occupation

Two broad classes of white collar crime

Organizational: committed by organization (often businesses) to advance the organization’s interest

Occupational: committed by individuals for their own personal gain.

Occupational crimes (4 types)

Employee theft

Fraud in the professions

usually doctors or lawyers

Insider Trading

-stocks

Political corruption

-govt officials misusing their office for political or economic gain. -watergate

Organizational crime (4)

-Price fixing

-Firms that are competed conspire to set prices.

-Sherman Antitrust Act of 1980 bans this

-Selling unsafe products

-Enivornmental pollution

-Corporate accounting fraud

-Knowingly submitting false accounting records

Costs of WC crime? Financial and mortality?

-Financial: 716;billion/yr

-Mortality: 113,000 deaths/yr

Sherman Antitrust Act

-Requires the federal govt. to investigate and pursue trusts, companies, and organizations suspected of violating the act.

-protects against price fixing

-protects public from organizational crime

Circumstances of robberies?

-Co offending

-Usually teams of 2+ offenders

-Planning

-Target Selection

Do the victim and the offender know one another?

-Usually not, 2/3rds the time they are strangers

Is there extensive planning in robberies?

-Majority of them are spontaneous

-60% of offenders test positive for drugs, and committ the offence to support the habbit

Sequence of a typical armed robbery

Co presence: entering the victim’s space.

The announcement: offender announces the crime and shows gun.

The transfer of goods: May force person to hang over their goods, or get it themselves to avoid being shortchanged or having a gun pulled.

The Escape: Some will threaten or harm to provide more time to escape. Some will force the victim to leave.

-Chance of injury is unaffected whether or not the victim knows the offender.

 

Unique timing of robbery events

Monthy: usually in winter months

Weekly: Fridays and Saturdays

Daily: Between 6pm – Midnight

How often does a robbery victim get injured?

-About 25%

-If the offender has a firearm, the chance of injury goes down.

-If the victim resists, the chance of injury increases.

Characteristics of robbery victims

-Usually male (2x higher when compared to females)

-Young (16-24)

-Poor (7500/yr)

Average property loss in a robbery

-$1000

What happens to robbers? (%)

-70% completed robberies are reported to police.

-20% result in arrest

-50% chance that an arrest will cause a conviction

-85% chance if convicted will go to jail (4+ years)

theft FROM a car is classified as

-larceny

how many auto thefts a year?

-1,138,000 (421 per 100,000)

different varieties of auto theft

-Joyriding

-car often recovered

-Short term or long term transportation

-To make money

chop (removing parts and selling)

retag (creating new documents and selling the car)

export (moving it to another country and selling)

where are cars often stolen from?

-45% on the street near home

-30% in public parking lot/parking garage

 

-Key point.. if you can park in your driveway, your insurance may go down because car theft rates will go down

When are cars most often stolen?

-60% at night

What kind of cars get stolen?

-Not usually the most expensive

-Consider absolute frequencies.. the most popular cars will make the criminal the most money (camry, accord, ext.)

-If you consider rates (per 1,000) the Cadillac Escalade is one of the most stolen cars, as long with other large expensive vehicles.

What techniques are used for stealing cars?

-Hotwiring

-30% the keys are left in the car

-There are some new systematic efforts to steal car keys

 

 

Average property loss of auto theft?

-$6,000

how to prevent getting your car stolen

-Common sense.. lock your car, protect your car keys.

What percentage of auto thefts are opportunistic?

-About 15%

Are car alarms/steering wheel locks effective?

-Yes, insurance usually give discounts for this.

Tracking devices

-Will lead to recovery of car in nearly 100% of cases.. but this is usually after the car is stripped of it’s parts

Most effective option (tool in the car);for preventing car loss?

-Auto immobilizers.. ignition kill switch

What happens to auto thieves?

-90% are reported to the police

-10% chance that a report will lead to arrest

-20% chance an arrest will result in a conviction

-75% chance that a conviction will result in jail

-Serve about 15 months

-What do property offenders do with the properties they steal?

-Often sold to a fence

Some things to remember about fences..

-Occur generally in conjunction with an actual business

-pawn shop or second hand store

-Fences buy stolen property for about 1/3 to 1/2 what they can sell it for.

-Fences are well-known by local thieves, but the police often know of them.

-Fences have a high status in the criminal world

;

Average property loss of burglary? Where do they enter?

-$1300

-Often through door

Definition of burglary
weak links of crimes

-Getting someone who is raped to report it

-Tracking down those who commit burglaries and robberies

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