Grand Canyon University

Grand Canyon University

  1. What are the frequency and percentage of the COPD patients in the severe airflow limitation group who are employed in the Eckerblad et al. (2014) study?

A frequency of 7 (14%) of the COPD patients in the severe airflow limitation group are employed.

  1. What percentage of the total sample is retired? What percentage of the total sample is on sick leave?

61 percent of the COPD patients is retired while 15 percent is on sick leave.

  1. What is the total sample size of this study? What frequency and percentage of the total sample were still employed? Show your calculations and round your answer to the nearest whole percent.

The total sample size is 91. A frequency of 14 (15 percent) of the total sample were still employed.

Total Number of Employed Patients = Employed COPD Patients with Moderate Airflow Limitation + Employed COPD Patients with Severe Airflow Limitation

The addition gives use 7 + 7 = 14 (Total Number of Employed)

Percentage of the Total Sample Employed = (Total Number of Employed/Total Sample Size) x 100%

This gives us (14/91) x 100% = 15.38% (15% to the nearest whole percent).

  1. What is the total percentage of the sample with a smoking history—either still smoking or former smokers? Is the smoking history for study participants clinically important? Provide a rationale for your answer.

96.7 percent of the sample have a smoking history. The smoking history for the study participants are clinically important because it can be used to determine cause of airflow limitation among the COPD patients.

  1. What are pack years of smoking? Is there a significant difference between the moderate and severe airflow limitation groups regarding pack years of smoking? Provide a rationale for your answer.

The mean pack years of smoking is 29.1 for COPD patients with moderate airflow limitation and 34.0 for COPD patients with severe airflow limitation. There is a significant difference between the moderate and severe airflow limitation groups regarding pack years of smoking. Those patients who experience severe airflow limitation have had several pack years of smoking compared to those patients who experience moderate airflow limitation.

  1. What were the four most common psychological symptoms reported by this sample of patients with COPD? What percentage of these subjects experienced these symptoms? Was there a significant difference between the moderate and severe airflow limitation groups for psychological symptoms?

The four most common psychological symptoms reported by the sample of patients with COPD include difficulty sleeping, worrying, feeling irritable, and feeling sad. 52 percent of patients with COPD experience difficulty sleeping, 33 percent experience worrying, 28 percent were feeling irritable, and 22 percent were feeling sad. The study revealed no significant difference between the moderate and severe airflow limitation groups for psychological symptoms.

  1. What frequency and percentage of the total sample used short-acting β2 -agonists? Show your calculations and round to the nearest whole percent.

A frequency of 45 (49 percent) of the total sample used short-acting β2 -agonists

Total Samples Who Used β2 -agonists = Moderate + Severe = 13 + 32 = 45 (frequency)

Percentage of Samples Who Used β2 -agonists = (45/91) x 100% = 49% (nearest whole percent).

  1. Is there a significant difference between the moderate and severe airflow limitation groups regarding the use of short-acting β2 -agonists? Provide a rationale for your answer.

Yes, there is a significant difference between the moderate and severe airflow limitation groups regarding the use of a short-acting β2 -agonists as indicated by the P-value = 0.001. Investigations regarding nursing research are set at α= 0.05. since the P-value of 0.001<0.05, the two groups were statistically significant.

  1. Was the percentage of COPD patients with moderate and severe airflow limitation using short acting β2 -agonists what you expected? Provide a rationale with documentation for your answer.

Yes, patients experiencing moderate to severe airflow commonly experience physical conditions including shortness of breath, cough, fatigue, and loss of energy. The measures, therefore, reflect the percentage of COPD patients that suffer some of these conditions.

  1. Are these findings ready for use in practice? Provide a rationale for your answer.

Yes, the findings provide evidence-based guidelines that can be used to assess, diagnose, control or manage the effect of many chronic diseases.

Exercise 8

  1. The number of nursing students enrolled in a particular nursing program between the years of 2010 and 2016, respectively, were 563, 593, 606, 520, 563, 610, and 577. Determine the mean( X ), median ( MD ), and mode of the number of the nursing students enrolled in this program. Show your calculations.

The mean of the number of the nursing students is the average number of all students enrolled for the program and can be calculated as follows: Mean = x̅ =  = 576

The median defines the number of students that lies in the middle of the list of numbers when the values are arranged in order. Arranging the numbers of students in rank gives us 520, 563, 563, 577, 593, 606, and 610.

Median (MD) =  =  = 4th score = 577

The mode defines the most frequent score(s) in a set of data. The most repeated number of students is the data set is 563.

  1. What is the mode for the variable inpatient complications in Table 2 of the Winkler et al. (2014) study? What percentage of the study participants had this complication?

The mode of the variable inpatient compilation of the Winkler et al. (2014) study is AMI post admission for patients admitted with UA since it has the highest frequency. 8 percent of the study participants had this type of compilation.

  1. Does the distribution of inpatient complications have a single mode, or is this distribution bimodal or multimodal? Provide a rationale for your answer.

The distribution of inpatient compilation is multimodal. This is because the distribution has variables with more than two modes (A case of several modes).

  1. As reported in Table 1, what are the three most common cardiovascular medical history events in this study, and why is it clinically important to know the frequency of these events?

The three most common cardiovascular medical history events in the study include personal history of CAD (n = 176), history of unstable angina (n = 124), and history of previous acute myocardial infarction (n = 114). It is clinically important to know the frequency of these events because they help determine the most common types of cardiovascular diseases affecting the population.

  1. What are the mean and median lengths of stay (LOS) for the study participants?

The mean length of stay (LOS) is 5.37 while the median length of stay is 4 according to data in Table 2 of the Winkler et al. (2014) study.

  1. Are the mean and median for LOS similar or different? What might this indicate about the distribution of the sample? Provide a rationale for your answer.

The mean and median for the LOS are different. The difference in mean and median indicate that the distribution of the sample has outliers. The mean and median of a normally distributed sample data is always equal. Outliers cause a data set to have different mean and median.

  1. Examine the study results and determine the mode for arrhythmias experienced by the participants. What was the second most common arrhythmia in this sample?

The mode for arrhythmias experienced by the participants is premature ventricular contraction. The second most common arrhythmia was non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT).

  1. Was the most common arrhythmia in Question 7 related to LOS? Was this result statistically significant? Provide a rationale for your answer.

The most common arrhythmia in question 7 had independent relationship with LOS. The result was statistically significant. With a P-value = 0.0001 < 0.05, the data for PVCs per hour and the length of stay were statistically insignificant.

  • What study variables were independently predictive of the 50 premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) per hour in this study?

The study variables that were independently predictive of the 50 PVCs per hour included age and acute myocardial infarction.

  1. In Table 1, what race is the mode for this sample? Should these study findings be generalized to American Indians with ACS? Provide a rationale for your answer.

The modal race for the sample is white (n=143). The study findings should not be generalized to American Indians. This is because only a few individuals from this ethnic community is affected by the medical condition compared to other groups.

Exercise 9

  1. What were the name and type of measurement method used to measure Caring Practices in the Roch, Dubois, and Clarke (2014) study?

Roch, Dubois, and Clarke (2014) used the “Psychological Climate Questionnaire” and “Caring Nurse-Patient Interaction Short Scale” to measure caring practices.

  1. The data collected with the scale identified in Questions 1 were at what level of measurement? Provide a rationale for your answer.

The data collected were at 5-point level of measurement. The researchers used a 5-point Likert scales ranging from “strongly disagree” to “strongly agree” and “almost never” to “almost always”. The highest scales were used to indicate higher scores.

  1. What were the subscales included in the CNPISS used to measure RNs’ perceptions of their Caring Practices? Do these subscales seem relevant? Document your answer.

The subscales included in the CNPISS to measure RNs’ perception of the caring practices were “overall rating”, “clinical care”, “relational care”, and “comforting care”. Yes, the subscales seem relevant because their measurements can be used to determine the rate at which nurses perform their caring practices.

  1. Which subscale for Caring Practices had the lowest mean? What does this result indicate?

Relational care had the lowest mean (2.90) and the result indicate that very few nurses held positive perception about this element as a measure of performance of caring practices.

  1. What were the dispersion results for the Relational Care subscale of the Caring Practices in Table 2? What do these results indicate?

The dispersion result for the relational care subscale of the caring practice were 1.01 as measured by the standard deviation and this means that the data pertaining to this subscale were widely spread around the mean.

  1. Which subscale of Caring Practices has the lowest dispersion or variation of scores? Provide a rationale for your answer.

Clinical care has the lowest dispersion. The 0.57 standard deviation indicates that the data is closer to the mean compared to other measurements.

  1. Which subscale of Caring Practices had the highest mean? What do these results indicate?

Comfort caring had the highest mean (4.08) and this means that a majority of the RNs has a positive perception about the outcomes of comfort caring.

  1. Compare the Overall rating for Organizational Climate with the Overall rating of Caring Practices. What do these results indicate?

The overall rating of organizational climate and caring practices indicate that nurses have the tendency of accessing the organizational climate since this has impact on their role perceptions, leadership, and ability to work in groups.

  1. The response rate for the survey in this study was 45%. Is this a study strength or limitation? Provide a rationale for your answer.

The response rate of 45% indicate that the study is a strength. A 45% response rate indicates that close to half the population had the desire to engage in the study.

  1. What conclusions did the researchers make regarding the caring practices of the nurses in this study? How might these results affect your practice?

Overall, the researchers concluded that RNs regularly perform caring practices. Although RNs hold positive perceptions about caring practices, there are those care elements that RNs must focus on to avoid feeling challenged.

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