# Lesson Plan in Physics (Logic Gates) Essay Example

# Lesson Plan in Physics (Logic Gates) Essay

LESSON PLAN I – **Lesson Plan in Physics (Logic Gates) Essay** introduction. Objectives At the end of the lesson, 80% should be able to: A. Differentiate the three basic logic gates B. Construct truth tables for each kind of logic gates C. Develop cooperation during class discussion II. Subject Matter A. Unit: Electricity and Magnetism B. Topic: Electronic Logic Circuits C. Concepts 1. AND gate works like a series circuit. 2. OR gate works like a parallel circuit. 3. NOT gate produces output opposite the input. D. Materials 1. Improvised logic gates (AND, NOT, OR, NAND, NOR) 2. Series and Parallel Circuits 3. Cartolina 4. Scotch tape 5. Markers

III. Learning Tasks/Activities A. Routine 1. Prayer 2. Greetings 3. Checking of Attendance B. Recall Teacher’s ActivitiesStudent’s Expected Answer/Activities Ok, class, could anyone tell the class the things we tackled last meeting? Yes, _______. For us to recall our knowledge about that topic. I will show you the symbol for each electronic component. Your task is to tell the class for what component that symbol is and tell its functions. Ok. Let’s start now. This is the symbol for what? Very good, ______. How about this one? Yes, _______. Very good. Next. Yes, _____. You’re right.

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How about the last one ? (Some Students will raise their hands) Last meeting, we tackled about the different electronic components. That is the symbol for resistor. It keeps current and voltage at the level that the other electronic components need to function properly. That is the capacitor which stores electrical charge. Transistor. It is a semiconductor device, commonly used to amplify or switch electronic signals. That is an integrated circuit or IC which is a very small single structure assembly of electronic components containing many circuits and functions on a chip. C. Motivation

For the Motivation, we will have a game patterned after “Pinoy Henyo”. I will choose three students through draw lots. They will sit on the chairs allotted for them in front of the class, they will be the guesser. The word will be placed on his forehead. There will only be one guesser for each word and will be asking yes/no questions to the rest of the class. The students can only answer back yes, no or maybe. There will be a one minute time limit. There will be 3 words to be guessed. They will be allowed to speak in Filipino for spontaneity. The words will be posted on the board whether or not the student guessed it.

The first two letters of the first two words plus the first letter of the last word will form the word LOGIC. D. Lesson Proper Teacher’s ActivityStudent’s Expected Answer/Activities Class, on the board are the 3 words we used in the game awhile ago. Could anyone tell the class what word would be formed using the first letters of each word? Yes, ______. That’s correct. Now, what comes into your mind when you hear the word logic? Yes, ___. Precisely. Logic means correct reasoning. In the game a while ago, do you see any logic there? Yes, ____. Will you please give a specific example from what was done?

Very good. So what was the logic used in the game? That’s correct. Now, can you give me examples of things that use logic for them to work? Yes, ______. That’s correct. Another, please. Yes, ______. That’s also correct. Yes, ______. Another? Another? That’s right. All of what you said – calculators, cell phones, gameboys, PSP – even playstation are actually computers. How do these things work? Yes, ____. That’s correct. What do you think do computers have to be able to use logic? You’re right but how do you call those parts? What specific electronic component? Very good.

ICs are responsible for the internal operations of a computer and they are the parts that do the logic. Integrated circuits are made of logic circuits. From the name itself, what can say about the function of a logic circuit? That’s correct but logic circuits are composed of logic gate. What is a logic gate? First, what can you infer from the word gate? Correct. Yes, ______. You’re correct. Now, what is a logic gate from what a gate is and what logic is? Very good. A logic circuit and a logic gate are capable of processing only one Binary Digit or bit at a time (0 or 1). What do think 0 and 1 mean?

You’re right. How about the electricity that passes through the circuit? Remember, we are now dealing with electronics. That’s correct. 0 or 1 represents the absence or presence of current or electricity. They also specify the results for different combination of two conditions: 01 OffOn NoYes ClosedOpen LowHigh (There will be a visual aid containing this table. ) Again, what is a logic gate? There are three basic types of logic gates – AND, OR and NOT. Lets first discuss the AND gate. What do we mean by the word “and”? What does it imply about the function of the AND gate? Very good.

Can you remember a type of circuit that works like the AND gate? You’re right. Can you explain how a series circuit works? Please go in front and use the series circuit I prepared. (There will be a series circuit mounted on an illustration board. ) Thank you. AND gate works like that. Here is an improvised AND gate which also shows its symbol. Please describe it. The left side is the input side and the right is the output side. (It will look like the figure below. ) Thank you. A and B are the input and Q is the output. If the switch is closed, it means an input 1 and if open, an input 0.

If the diode lights, it means an output of 1 and 0 if not. Now, ___1___ and __2___, please go here and do what I will tell you. ___1___, you will be the one to operate the improvised AND gate and __2___, fill in the truth table. By the way, for each logic gate, there is a corresponding truth table which shows the gate output for each of the four possible combinations of the two inputs. Ok, let’s start. First, turn off both switches. _______, describe what happened. Next, leave Switch A off and turn on the Switch B one. What happened? Turn on Switch A and turn off the other. What happened?

Lastly, turn on the Switch B. Tell us what happened. From the data we got for AND gate, who can now state the idea how that gate works. Yes, ___. Very good. Given that statement, what mathematical formula can we use for this kind of gate? That’s absolutely correct. Now, let’s proceed to the OR gate. Or means? Yes, ____. What does it imply about the function of the OR gate? That’s true. What kind of connection works like the OR gate? Would anyone describe how parallel circuit work? Yes, _____. Here is the symbol for Or gate. Please describe it. Very good. ___1___ and __2___, please go in front. __1___, do what (the student earlier) did but now with the OR gate and ___2___, fill in the truth table. __3__, please tell the class what will happen. With those data, what idea describes how OR gate works? What do think its mathematical formula? Very good. Now lets go to the next kind gate – the NOT gate. It is the simplest possible gate. This is the symbol for NOT gate. Why is it the simplest gate? Answer it by describing its symbol. ______, manipulate the improvised NOT gate, ______, describe what will happen and ____ fill in the Truth table. So, what is the idea behind the NOT gate? Its equation is: Q = A.

The bar above A indicates opposite. The next kind of gate that we will be discussing would be the NAND and NOR gates. Look at this symbol of a NAND gate. Please describe it, ______. That’s right but what do does that circle doing there? So what does it imply? That is absolutely correct. It is a AND gate that its output is connected into a NOT gate. Now could be the equation for this? So, who wants to construct the truth table for NAND gate? Very good. Now, ___1___, ___2___, and ___3___, do what was done to the previous gates. So that is the truth table for the NAND gate. Now what can you say about this. I will show the improvised NOR gate. ) What else? What do you think is its equation? Very good. Now, ___1___, ___2___, and ___3___, do what was done to the previous gates. So that’s the truth table for NOR gate. We are now finished with the different types of logic gates. Do you now understand what Logic Gate is? Now that you have an understanding of logic gates, what do you think are the importance of knowing about logic gates? Very good. So I’m giving you an example of application of Logic gates. One would be a hedge trimmer. For safety they often have two switches. You need to work them with your left AND right hands together.

Each, on its own, will do nothing. Do you have any questions? If none, get ? sheet of pad paper and answer the questions on the questionnaire provided. You are only given 10 minutes to finish the exam. (After 10 minutes) Ok, pass your papers. Listen class, this is your assignment. To be submitted next meeting. Goodbye class. (Students will raise their hands. ) The letters form the word logic, maam. Maam, correct reasoning. Yes, maam. There is logic in our game. Maam, for the word Los Angeles, when he asked if it’s a name of a person, his partner said no which means he should not ask about a name of a person.

Then, he asked if it’s a place, the other one said yes so he didn’t ask other things but places only. The logic there is when you asked something broad and the answer is no, ask another broad question until the answer is yes. Then ask a specific question that is related or under the first confirmed question. Do that again and again until you arrive to the word. one is a calculator. Another is a cell phone. Gameboy. PSP. Maam, a computer. They are using logic. Maybe because they have parts that enable them to think like the human brain? The electronic parts? The Integrated circuits.

Logic circuits are circuits that process the commands that we are giving it. It means a way or path. It means an entrance or an exit. A logic gate is a path that decides what will go out if something goes in. They mean a yes or a no. They say whether or not there’s electricity passing through. A logic gate is a path that decides what will go out if something goes in. It means also or in addition to. An AND gate needs current flowing though all the input for it to have current flowing through its output. Is it the series circuit? In a series circuit, like this one, there is only one path through which the current can go.

This means that when both switches are closed, then lamp will light. If one or both of the switches are open, the lamp will not light because the circuit is not complete. It has 2 input paths connected to the flat side of a half oblong and has an output path at the middle of the rounded side. (The two students will go in front) The diode did not light when there are no current flowing though both switches. The diode did not light. The diode did not light. The diode did not light. (The student will fill in the table and will look like this. ) ABQ 000 010 100 111 The idea behind AND gate is: if A and B are both 1, then Q is 1.

It also follows that when A and B or any of the two is 0, then Q is 0. Q = A•B It means any of the two. An OR gate works in such a way it only needs at least one input with flowing current to have current in the output. Parallel connection. For this case, the circuit has a lamp, battery and two switches connected in parallel. There are two possible paths for the current to take which means than if one or both switch is closed, the lamp will light. It is like the AND gate with two input and one output. The only difference is that the flat side in the AND gate is curve in the OR gate. (The students will be doing what they are asked to do. (The truth table will look like the table below. ) ABQ 000 011 101 111 If A is 1 or B is 1 or both are one, then Q is 1. Its formula is Q = A+B. It has only one input that connected to the flat side of a triangle. There is also a little circle at the opposite vertex and an output connected to it. It is the simplest gate because it takes one input and produces one output.. (The students will be doing what they are asked to do. ) (The truth table will look like the table below. ) AQ 01 10 It takes one input and produces as output its opposite. It looks like an AND gate with a circle in the output side.

Maybe it means something like it says that the output should be just like the not gate. It means that a NAND gate is combination of an AND and NOT gate and that the output for a combination of that gate should be opposite that of the same combination in an AND gate. The equation for this gate is: Q = A•B. (The students will be doing what they are asked to do. ) (The truth table will look like the table below. ) ABQ 001 011 101 110 It is the combination of OR and NOT gates and it is called the NOR gate. Its output for a certain combination is the opposite of the same combination in OR gate. I think its equation is Q = A+B. The students will be doing what they are asked to do. ) (The truth table will look like the table below. ) ABQ 001 010 100 110 Yes ma’am. I think one of the importance of knowing it is having an understanding as to how our digital materials work. (Students quietly answer the exam. ) E. Evaluation 1. Draw the symbol for NAND gate. 2. Draw the symbol for NOR gate. 3. Write the equation for NOT gate 4-10 Fill in the outputs for each gate. Rubrics for Evaluation: Number 1Number 2Number 3Number 4 1 pointThe symbol for NAND Gate is complete. The symbol for NOR Gate is complete. The equation given is correct.

Each correct answer merits 1 point. However, if an answer is incorrect, all of the connected outputs would be already incorrect. 0. 75 pointThe symbol drawn is like the AND gate without the circle. The symbol drawn is like the OR gate without the circle. 0. 5 pointThe symbol drawn is like the AND gate without the circle and output. The symbol drawn is like the OR gate without the circle and output. Q = A was written without the bar above A 0. 25 pointThe symbol drawn is like the AND gate without the circle and output. There are two inputs. The symbol drawn is like the OR gate without the circle and output.

There are two inputs. 0 pointNo drawing or the symbol drawn is like the OR Gate or NOT Gate. No drawing or the symbol drawn is like the AND Gate or NOT Gate. No answer or the answer written is for other Gate. F. Assigments 1. Enrichment Think of real life situations that can be represented by logic diagrams. 2. Reinforcement Design a logic circuit that has a specific function. 3. Remedial Fill in the outputs for the following logic circuits. G. Reference Padua, Alicia and Ricardo Crisostomo. Practical and Explorational Physics: Modular Approach. Quezon City: Vibal Publishing House, Inc. , 2003.