Presentation: the Role of psychological motivation in the development of the plot (C. crane. “His new mittens”)
The role of psychological motivation in the development of the plot (C. crane. “His new mittens”)
Yushkevich I. A.
In the literary legacy of American writer Stephen crane (1871-1900) a few short stories, which differ from other of his works the lack of expressive art techniques and striking effects. However, written in the last years of life of the author, they seem to sum up the research writer of the human soul. “Stories Whilomville” (“The Whilomville Tales”) describe a simple incident of a small town, the story centers on family life and personal experiences, mostly children. We will focus on one of the novels in this series “His new mittens” (“His New Mittens”), which was published in 1898. In our opinion, it refers to purely psychological works.
The protagonist of the story reminiscent of Tom Sawyer, disobedient and self-willed, but in fact is not bad and not good, but recognizable all the usual child.
“Little Horace was returning home from school, dressed in dazzling new red mittens” . The boys invite him to play in the snow, but he, mindful of the admonition of the mother right after school to go home and not to spoil new mittens, forced to give up. The boys laugh and even mock the strife-torn Horace. The boy really want to play, and it is included in the opposition “SolDat” and “Indians”, but his enemy on the snowy battle treacherously deceive all: he shouts that came at him, and he “killed” Horace. Hero argues, trying to restore justice, but at this very moment, mother is calling him home. For disobedience and soaked mittens child being punished and decides to run away from home. On the way to California Horace walks into a butcher shop Stickney, “a close friend of the late father” the boy who returns the fugitive to completely upset mother and aunt.
From the very first sentence, crane writes in detail the psychological motivation of the child’s behavior, or rather the increase of those or other motives. Moreover, there is a clear psychological conditioning of behavior, but there is no deployed psychological characteristics, reflective monologues of the hero, multivalued analytic implication. The basis of the psychological method C. crane is to transfer a complex, sometimes quite vague baby feelings, but without analysis of the processes. M. M. Bakhtin calls this method “an active creative experience”: “… the author is reflecting the emotional-volitional position of the hero, but not its position in relation to the hero; this last he realizes that it is a substantive, but itself becomes the subject of consideration and reflected experiences…” .
Horace “obedient” promised mother from school to go home, so the voices of friends: “come to us,” he deliberately said, “no, I can’t, I need to go home” . But inside the boy is a struggle, “he hesitated”, he “grieved”. This behavior can not go unnoticed among his peers: “Wanting to make fun of, they broke the game” (279). Merciless in their frankness children “sing like a real choir: “Bo-it-Xia for their all-dir-Ki!” (280). It is noteworthy that crane compares the replica of the children with singing, but they sing on “cruel and monotonous motive”, “this terrible motive in the sense resembled the songs of cannibals” (279-280).
The action of the novel revolves around one character. Focusing on his experiences — the main condition of psychological narrative. The author is not ironic, he’s absolutely serious about suffering for his character-a“Martyr”, so the prosecution of Horace peers describes how the military episode: “beat him on the flank”, “on the opposite flank, immediately followed by a new attack”, “moved to the rear”, “surrounded by enemies and exhausted” “slow retreat” (280). The psychological narrative in children’s stories is the same as in the works of crane about the war. Crane openly sympathizes with the hero: “the boy has experienced more suffering than usually falls to the share of even an adult” (281). The interest in turning the state of the soul is the basis of psychologism. Are used to test character, in which all contradictions are extremely sharpened. The writer seeks to show the psychological insecurity, the drama of decisions and actions on the background of the obvious unwillingness of the child to such a difficult test.
The blow inflicted by the child of pride and vanity, not comic, because the teenage life is known only to them subject to the laws of honour: “In this boyish life obedience to some unwritten article of faith on issues of conduct was implemented in a bizarre way, but with ruthless severity” (281). However, the reader is aware, not one Horace is forced to endure unjust accusations of their peers, it’s the law. To underscore the inviolability of this situation, crane detail, in every detail conveys the rules of the game in the Indians and soldiers, as if forgetting about the existence of your character. Children “smaller and weaker” are always prepared for a losing role — Indians because the soldiers who play the boys “older”, “always supposed to beat the Indians” (281). The description of the battle and the preparation for it has an important psychological value, because it explains why “the spectacle of the battle enchanted”, “enchanted” (282) Horace, did not allow him to go home, although “it never was a feeling of guilt, even inevitable punishment for disobedience, but it couldn’t outweigh the thrill caused by this snow battle” (282) (emphasis added. — I. Y.).
The second important feature of the first cupola is the author’s desire to explain to an adult reader the difference between a child and an adult. Novella S. crane — kids, but she’s clearly drawn to big, not to small, in contrast to the famous mark TWAIN’s novel, which is close and understandable to both children and adults. No, crane does not oppose them, but he tries to remind adults that they are grown children, delicate and fragile world of childhood exists regardless of adults give themselves or not. Children’s motive is “absolutely free from forgotten traditions of the older school” (280); the boy suffers at the behest of the mother greater “than usually falls to the share of even an adult” (281); the battle of “fascinated” Horace, it’s “fascinated more than understanding of the adult” (282). Not confrontation, but a blank wall of misunderstanding shared in this case adults and children. Their conflict is psychological in essence and form.
That’s why the representative of the adult world violates the charm of the snow battle and rips rehabilitation unfairly hurt Horace. Crane finds vivid detail that changes the whole decoration of the novel, deafening music, children’s games interrupted the monotonous sound of mother’s voice. Horace hears his name, “said a familiar motif of three notes in which the last note was shrill and long… Among boys of silence” (283-284).
The short story “His new mittens” is a clear dvuchastnaya division, although nominally consists of four chapters. In the first part of the crane rapidly escalate the situation. Frustration of the child seemed to overlap. First he was forced to abandon winter fun, and his friends laugh at him. Then winning a duel turns into an unfair slander. Then “a shame that he can’t stay on the street as late as other boys!” (284). And finally, the inevitable punishment for ruining my mittens at home. By the middle of the novel all the “misfortune” to have fallen upon the head of Horace. The second part is a naked psychological effect, it begins at the moment when all the contradictions highlighted and exacerbated to the extreme, so the subsequent story of the crane is based almost entirely on the internal monologue of a child. Here, it is legitimate to speak of a tendency to merge the perception of the hero with the perception of the narrator. After B. A. assumption this technique can be called “psychological point of view” when “authorial point of view relies on a particular individual consciousness (perception)” . Crane gives the reader the analysis of the behavior of his character, his inner life, it only means that sometimes hints at emotional condition and life situation. Almost casually it is reported that the father of Horace died (the mother is still a widow mourning) that the mother spoils the son (it preaches a policy of concessions), and his aunt tries to Stroget. In this situation, the close relationship of the hero and the author gives the reader room for interpretation and reflection. Such fusion of the narrator and the character occurs in the lyrics.
Boy all that befell him of the incident are global. Crane emphasizes to the child that the mother dragged her son home “for the whole world to see” — “public scandal” . Spinster aunt Martha is proud that she looks strong relations with the child. But the furtive crying when Horace comes home. The mother of Horace, second and falling on a simple trick of the son, too, finds this approach the only correct one. For Horace, and the preservation of self-esteem is a vital necessity. Proud, vulnerable, boyish feelings developed by the author in the story the center of the novel. Punished for disobedience, the boy sits in the kitchen before a plate of food and vows “not to sell his vengeance for bread, cold ham and pickles” (286). The oath read like a hero from some cheap books (from the same flimsy pictures of the terrible revenge and the decision “heroic” trip to California). According to adults the food should suppress the selfish opposition of the will of the boy’s family, to subdue the rebellious soul. From the point of view of Horace, refusal of food is a strong weapon in his hands, more of which alone escape. However, the temptation of food is causing an extraordinary struggle in the soul of Horace: “… we should recognize that their (pickles. — I. J.) has made it a powerful impact…” (286).
Crane accurately conveys the psychological moment a lightning change of mood of the child: Horace determined, Horace close to capitulating, Horace realizes the gravity and the hopelessness of his situation and cries, Horace draws in the head, “the scene of deadly retaliation”, Horace realized that a “trial trick” he had been deceived, and feels “the highest degree of aversion to life, peace, mother” (286-287). Picture of terrible vengeance follow one after the other, boy I’m sure the mother is to blame for his troubles, and this feeling of guilt doesn’t leave her to death, and he decides to run.
A huge role in the novel is played by the motive of retaliation. The cruelty of children wanting to assert themselves, to show adults their power is well known. Writer exactly, step by step, passes the stages of children’s thought and imagination. The weeping mother “falls at his feet,” she begs him on the “mercy”. But Horace won’t forgive her, because “her injustice turned to stone his once tender heart” (286). “Joy,” “triumph” and “glee” the boy is watching the commotion in the house. A little while later, cold and hungry, he feels pity for himself, but to abandon his “principles” to violate “is not entirely clear code” (289) can not. “In the absence of traditional psychological analysis built into the system circumstances be signs of experiences of the hero. Each of them falling within the scope of the author’s attention, embodies some kind of isolated experience. Working together, they create an image of the internal condition of the soul” . Recurring elements of plot-compositional unity sometimes acquire a multi-valued implication, gravitating to the character. This character, in our opinion, “His new mittens” is a boy’s code of honor (unnamed, but implied at the beginning of the novel is named, but “not entirely clear” at the end). It is this incomprehensible, but the harsh law causes emotional upheaval of Horace, for the rest of the actors all remain unchanged.
Many researchers granovskogo creativity I believe that Stephen crane learned a lot from Leo Tolstoy. It concerns the psychological, military and other works of the writer. It’s hard to disagree. Still, the differences in the conduct of psychological narrative is obvious. If Tolstoy explains, analyzes human actions, thoughts, words, crane provides no analysis of the feelings and experiences and offers them to the reader in a complex variety and without the author’s estimates.
List of literature
1. Crane St. The Portable Crane. Univ. of South Carolina, 1977. P. 475.
2. Bakhtin M. M. Aesthetics of verbal creativity. M., 1986. P. 11.
3. Crane, S. red badge of courage. Stories. Moscow; Leningrad, 1962. S. 279. Further references to this edition are given in the text, pages in parentheses.
4. Uspensky B. A. Poetics of composition. The structure of the artistic text and typology of art forms. M., 1970. P. 109.
5. Crane St. The Portable Crane. P. 478.
6. Skobelev, V. P., Poetics of the story. Voronezh, 1982. C. 73.