Summary: the Literary character ROMEO and JULIET
ROMEO and JULIET (eng. Romeo and Juliet) — heroes of the tragedy by W. Shakespeare “Romeo and Juliet” (1595), who became forever a symbol of the beautiful but tragic love between two young creatures separated by irreversible age-old feud family clans to which they belong: the Montagues (Romeo) and the Kapu-Letty (Juliet). These names are mentioned in “the divine Comedy” by Dante. Subsequently, the story of two lovers repeatedly developed in the Italian literature of the Renaissance; the names of Romeo and Juliet for the first time arise in the “History of two noble lovers” Luigi da Porto (C. 1524), where the action takes place in Verona. From da Porto story moved on to other writers, in particular to Matteo Bandello (1554), whose Novella was the basis for the poem of Arthur Brooke’s “Romeo and Juliet” (1562), which, in turn, became the main, if not only, source of Shakespeare’s tragedy. However, as always in Shakespeare old bottles poured new wine. Brooke, portraying his lovers ‘ characters are not without compassion, prone to dreary moralizing and preaching obedience, moderation, and humility before the hostile circumstances. For him, the love of Romeo and Juliet if not a sin, or at least some redundancy and confusion, for what befalls them deserved punishment. Quite differently approached this story Shakespeare. It renes-Sunny the ideal of a great love, appearing above family prejudices, above the centuries old hatred, seemingly insurmountable dividing the two young scions of the warring clans, and today is perceived modern, no discounts on those four centuries that separate us from the inception of the play. The action of Shakespeare’s tragedy laid in five days, during which all events occur of a play: from initial — and fatal! — meeting of Romeo and Juliet at the ball in the house Ka-poletti to their sad death in the family vault of the Capulets. Shakespeare’s characters are very young, however, the depth affected their feelings makes them precocious adults. However, in this sense, they are quite different. Romeo in the beginning of the play is naive, he languidly ripped apart from love in a kind of Rosalind. (Unlike Brooke, making her an active participant and build around it and Romeo long-term effect, Shakespeare brings it to the stage at all.) Around Romeo the whole company the same as he, and the young men (Mercutio, Benvolio), and he spends his time like his: reeling idly, languidly sighing and doing nothing. Juliet from the very beginning, from the first his appearance is striking not only with the cleanliness and charm of blossoming youth, but grown-up depth, a tragic sense of existence. She is more Mature than Romeo. He’s loving Juliet gradually realize how everything that happens between them is serious and difficult and how many obstacles are in their way, and as if coming to her, turning from an ordinary young Lovelace, in passionately loving and ready to do anything for this love “not a boy, but husband.”The love of Romeo and Juliet is not just a violation of the prohibitions family is an open challenge to their centuries-old tradition of hatred is the hatred with which for many generations were born and died many Montagues and the Capulets, on which rested almost the foundations of the state of Verona. So afraid of all the impudence and the depth of killing Romeo and Juliet feelings, because try to separate them. For their love, their Union undermines, violates something that cannot be broken. Despite his youth and carelessness, in spite of boyish daring Romeo and girlish spontaneity Juliet, they almost from the start know pre-acercandose finals. “My soul full of dark presentiments!” says Juliet, looking after a runaway in Romeo’s banishment. The power and transcendence of their passion, the finality of adopted decisions and reckless determination to everything, including death, shocking even the one who seemingly understands them, and not only sympathize with them, but also strongly contributes to, the father Laurence: “These violent delights end is terrible, // And death is waiting for them in the midst of the celebration.”The first performance of the play took place presumably in London Kurtina. Among the famous performers of the role of Romeo in the English theatre — David Garrick (1750), Charles Kemble (1805), C. macredie (1810), E. keen (1817), in 1882, the tragedy was staged in the Lyceum theatre, headed by Henry Irving (Irving — Romeo, E. Terry — Juliet), in 1884 the role of Juliet was played by Stella Patrick Campbell. In the XX century an outstanding performer of the role of Romeo was A. Mo-Issy (directed by M. Reinhardt, 1907). In the English theatre Romeo John Gielgud, Juliet of Adele Dixon (1929); Romeo and Mercutio — J. alternately.Gielgud and Laurence Olivier, Juliette — Peggy Ashcroft (1935). In 1940, L. Olivier and Vivien Leigh played the show in new York. Famous performer of the role of Juliet in the 1970s, was Dorothy Tutin.On the Russian stage in the role of Romeo, as in many other roles competed by P. S. Mo-Chalov (little theatre, 1824) and V. A. Karatygin (theatre of Alexandria, 1841). In 1881, Juliet was played by M. N. Yermolov (Romeo — A. P. Lensky). Famous were the performances of Chamber theatre, 1921 staged by A. Y. Tairov (Juliet A. Koonen, Romeo – N.M.Tsereteli) and the Theater of the Revolution, 1935 staged by Popov (Juliet M. I. Babanova, Romeo M. F. Astangov), Theater on Malaya Bronnaya, 1969, staged by Anatoly Efros (Juliet O. M. Yakovleva, Romeo A. D. Grachev).The story of “lovers of Verona” and continued in the operas of Vincenzo Bellini (1830) and Charles Gounod (1867) Overture-fantasy, and the scenes-duets Tchaikovsky (1869), a dramatic Symphony for soloists and orchestra, H. Berlioz (1839). Outstanding performers of the operatic versions of Shakespeare’s characters was Adelina Patti, A. V. Nezhdanova (Juliet) and L. V. Sobinov, Sergei Lemeshev (Romeo). For the Russian audience the way Juliet is inextricably linked with the name of G. S. Ulanova danced this role in Prokofiev’s ballet (1940, choreography by L. M. Lavrovsky). Also known ballet embodiments Shakespeare plot set to music by Tchaikovsky, Berlioz (the latter in M. Bejart ballet, 1978). The most famous adaptation is owned by F. Zeffirelli (1968). A modernized version of the story of Romeo and Juliet, transferred to the XX century — the movie musical “West side story” (1961).
Lit.: Morozov M. M. Shakespeare Theatre. M., 1984; L. E. Pinsky’s Shakespeare: the Basic principles of drama. M., 1971.